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Fake News-Evaluating Sources: Evaluation


Credits: content used on this page was adapted from:  Evaluating Information - Applying the CRAAP Test. The CRAAP Test was created by Sarah Blakeslee of the University of California at Chico's Meriam Library.

If you find yourself wondering about the authenticity of something online (or anywhere, really), try using the CRAAP test to evaluate the relative strengths and weaknesses.


  • When was the information published?
  • Has it been revised or edited?  Can you tell?
  • Does your information need require the most up-to-date research?


  • Who is the intended audience?
  • Have you been able to find multiple sources, and are you able to compare them?
  • Would you be comfortable using it as a citation?


  • Who wrote it?  If you cannot tell, how much can you find out about the company/publisher?
  • What are the author's qualifications?
  • Are the authors qualified enough to write about the topic?
  • What kind of domain name does the website have? (.edu, .org, .net, .gov, .com...)


  • Where does the information come from?
  • Are sources credited?  Are experts interviewed?
  • Do links to other articles work?  Do they appear authoritative?
  • Is the tone (or any possible headlines or titles) unbiased, or meant to provoke emotion?
  • Can you verify the information from other sources?


  • What is the purpose of this information? To entertain, educate, anger...?
  • Is the information factual, opinion, or a combination of the two?
  • Are there any noticeable biases?
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